PRTT1/1

Corpus Refs:Collingwood/Wright/1965:2254
Nash-Williams/1950:258
Site:PRTT1
Discovery:recognised, 1839 inc
History:Rhys/1873, 10: `At Port Talbot I overlooked...[this] important stone'.

Westwood/1879, 38--39: `This stone originally stood upon the road from Nidum (Neath) to the southern Bovium or Bomium (either Boverton or Ewenny). Thirty years ago I found it lying in the harbour-master's office at Port Talbot, broken into five or six pieces...In addition to the notices above given, this stone has been recorded in the `Journal of the Archaeological Institute', iii. 1846, p. 274; the `Journal of the Archaeological Association', ii. 1847, p. 287; Thomas Wright's `The Celt and the Saxon', p. 456; Haddan and Stubbs, Councils, i. 168; and by myself in the Arch. Camb., 1856, pp. 251, 320'.

Rhys/1899, 145: `Another stone, which was formerly at Port Talbot, is now in the church [at Margam]'.

Macalister/1945, 383: `It was originally at Port Talbot'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 161: `Found on the E. outskirts of the town beside the former course of the main road, near an old toll-cottage'.

RCAHMW/1976, 37: `found in 1839 on the outskirts of Port Talbot (No. 755 (iii))'.

Geology:Nash-Williams/1950, 161: `Rhaetic sandstone from the Bridgend-Pyle area'.

Macalister/1945, 383: `red sandstone'.

RCAHMW/1976, 37: `sandstone'.

Dimensions:1.52 x 0.48 x 0.25 (converted from Macalister/1945)
Setting:in display
Location:Margam Stones Museum (Cat: no. 1)
Knight/1999, shows that this stone is now held in the Margam Stones Museum, and that it is on the ground floor marked as number 1. Nash-Williams/1950, 161: `The stone is in Margam Abbey Museum'. Knight/1999, shows the stone now placed on the ground floor of the Margam Stones Museum.

RCAHMW/1976, 37: `The stone, formerly in Margam Abbey Church, is in Margam Stones Museum, set up as for a milestone'.

Form:milestone
Westwood/1879, 38: `It was about 5 feet long and 1 1/4 feet wide, tapering at the lower end, and was doubtless originally inserted upright in the ground. On its face it bears the Roman inscription...On the other side of the stone [is the second inscription]'.

Rhys/1899, 145: `Roman milestone'.

Macalister/1945, 383: `A pillar... with rounded sides'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 161: `Rough pillar-stone...60+" h. x 19 1/2" w. x 3--12" t...The stone bears two inscriptions (Fig. 174) on the front and back respectively...For another example of a re-used Roman monument see No. 228'.

RCAHMW/1976, 37: `The squared sandstone pillar (Plate 1) originally serving as a Roman milestone and was re-used inverted for a Latin memorial inscription on the opposite face'.

Condition:incomplete , good
CISP: A piece of the stone appears to have been lost since Westwood saw it, and in the process a part of the Roman inscription has been lost.

Rhys/1899, 145: `The stone is broken in several pieces'.

Rhys/1918, 186: `The Roman inscription itself with the three first lines incomplete owing to the loss of one of the six pieces to which the stone was reduced. However, Westwood, in his plate 26, gives all the six pieces, but his plate leaves the third line impossible to read'.

Macalister/1945, 383: `broken into several pieces. The top fragment is lost, but otherwise the stone is in good condition'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 161: `fractured in five pieces, with part of the head wanting'.

Folklore:none
Crosses:none
Decorations:no other decoration

References


Inscriptions


PRTT1/1/1     Pictures

Readings

Westwood, J.O. (1879):IMPC | FLAVA | [D]MAXI | MINO | INVIC | TOAVG | GVS
Expansion:
IMP C FLA VA[D] MAXIMINO INVICTO AVGVS
Nash-Williams/1950 38 reading only
Macalister, R.A.S. (1945):IMPC | FLAVA | LMAXI | MINO | INVIC | TOAVG | GVS
Expansion:
IMP C FLA VAL MAXIMINO INVICTO AVGVS
Macalister/1945 383 reading only
Nash-Williams, V.E. (1950):IM[-- | FLA[--] | LM[AXI] | MINO | INVIC | TOAV | GVS
Expansion:
IM[PERATORE CAESARE] FLAVIO [VA]LERIO M[AXI]MINO INVICTO AVGVSTO
Translation:
(Set up in the reign of) the Emperor Caesar Flavius Valerius Maximinus (PN), the Unconquered, Augustus.
Nash-Williams/1950 161, Fig. 174 reading only

Notes

Orientation:horizontal
Position:ind ; broad ; n/a ; undecorated
Nash-Williams/1950, 161: `Front. Latin inscription (incomplete) in seven lines reading horizontally'.
Incision:inc
Date:309 - 313 (Nash-Williams/1950)

308 - 308 (Macalister/1945)
Language:Latin (rcaps)
Ling. Notes:Jackson/1953, 623, speaks of a `gross confusion of cases' in this inscription. Westwood/1879, 38: `Col. Francis thus speaks of this stone, which `was found in 1839 at Port Talbot, between Neath and the Roman station of Bovium. The older inscription, if we may depend on the fidelity of the engraving, is dedicated, not, as some have pretended, to Maximian, but to Maximin, who bears upon his coins the title of Invictus (as upon the stone), which is not found on those of Maximian. The inscription as it now stands may be read thus -- Imp. C. Fla. Val. Maximino Invicto Augus(to). But on looking closer we are led to believe that the first part belongs to a still older inscription, as the C. Fla. Val. (Caius Flavius Valerius) were names which never belonged to Maximin, whose name was Galerius Valerius. (The names of the two Maximians were `Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maximianus' and `Galerius Valerius Maximianus'.) The appellation of C. Flavius Valerius belongs to the second Severus, and it is probable that to him this stone was originally inscribed, but that subsequently his name had been erased to give place to that of Maximin by some person who carelessly or ignorantly overlooked the prenomens.

The name of the Emperor Maximinus here recorded (with the title INVICTUS) also occurs in an inscription found in Cumberland, given by Horsley (Brit. Rom. p. 192, No. 40; and conf. Hubner, Inscr. Lat. vii. 1158)'.

Macalister/1945, 383--384: `This inscription is outside our scope, but it may be observed that the Imperial praenomina are inaccurate. There were two emperors called Maximinus -- Gaius Iulius Verus Maximinus (A.D. 235--238) and Galerius Valerius Maximinus (A.D. 308--314). The latter is doubtless the person intended. Flauius Valerius Seuerus was emperor in 306--7; apparently his praenomina were by some error ascribed in the inscription to his sucessor. Such an error would be most likely to take place just at a change of reign, so that we may confidently date this inscription to A.D. 308'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 161: `The inscription identifies the monument as a Roman milestone, set up originally in the time of the Emperor Maximinus (A.D. 309-13), presumably to mark the repair or rehabilitation of the Roman main S. Wales road where it passed through or near the site of modern Port Talbot'.

Palaeography:Westwood/1879, 33: `written in large capital letters across the stone...Owing to the crack across the third line there is a little difficulty about the first letter, which has been given as CL in the Gentleman's Magazine, 1840, p. 296, and simply as L in Col. Grant Francis's work on Neath Abbey and its Charters (Swansea, 1845, p. 8). It appears to me to be a D, unless, as is possible, the top of the curved second stroke of the letter should be only part of the crack of the stone. The oblique elongation of the top of the second stroke of the A without a cross bar and the form of the G in the last line are palaeographical peculiarities worthy of notice'.

Rhys/1899, 145: `reading, according to Hubner (No. 1158) Imp(eratore) C[aesare) Fla(vio) Val(erio) Maximino invicto Augus(to). As to the lettering, I noticed that the last two V's have their right limb perpendicular, and so with the tag of the G'.

Rhys/1918, 186: `The Roman inscription itself with the three first lines incomplete owing to the loss of one of the six pieces to which the stone was reduced. However, Westwood, in his plate 26, gives all the six pieces, but his plate leaves the third line impossible to read'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 161: `Lightly picked Roman capitals, with straight serifs, clumsily formed. The A's have no cross-bar. The F in l. 1 is E-shaped (see No. 27)'.

Legibility:some
Lines:7
Carving errors:0
Doubtful:no

Names

References


PRTT1/1/2     Pictures

Readings

Westwood, J.O. (1879):HICIACITCANTVSVSPATERPA/VL[.]NVS
Expansion:
HIC IACIT CANTVSVS PATER PAVLINVS
Translation:
Here lies Cantusus (PN), whose father was Paulinus (PN).
Expansion:
HIC IACIT CANTVSVS PATER PAVLINVS
Translation:
Here lies Cantusus (PN), who was the father of Paulinus (PN).
Westwood/1876 38--39 concise discussion
Rhys, J. (1899):HICIACITCANTVSVSPATERPA/VLINVS
Expansion:
HIC IACIT CANTVSVS PATER PAVLINVS
Translation:
Here lies Cantusus (PN): (his) father Paulinus (PN) (put up the stone).
Rhys/1899 146 reading only
Macalister, R.A.S. (1945):HICIACITCANTVSVSPATERPA/V/LINVS
Expansion:
HIC IACIT CANTVSVS PATER PAVLINVS
Macalister/1945 384 reading only
Nash-Williams, V.E. (1950):HICIACITCANTVSVSPATERPA/VLINVS
Expansion:
HIC IACIT CANTVSVS PATER PAVLINVS
Translation:
Here lies Cantusus (PN). (His) father (was) Paulinus (PN) [or (His) father Paulinus (PN) (set up this stone)].
Nash-Williams/1950 161 reading only
RCAHMW (1976):HICIACITCANTVSVSPATERPA/VLINVS
Expansion:
HIC IACIT CANTVSVS PATER PAVLINVS
Translation:
Here lies Cantusus (PN) -- his father was Paulinus (PN).
RCAHMW/1976 37 reading only

Notes

Orientation:vertical down
Position:ind ; broad ; n/a ; undecorated
Nash-Williams/1950, 161: `Back. Latin inscription in one line reading vertically downwards'.

RCAHMW/1976, 37: `This inscription, in one line down the face originally'.

Incision:pocked
Macalister/1945, 384: `pocked'.
RCAHMW/1976, 37: `picked'.
Date:500 - 599 (RCAHMW/1976)

500 - 599 (Nash-Williams/1950)

- (Rhys/1899)
Rhys/1899, 146: `In any case we are not helped by either Paulinus or Cantusus in fixing the date of the inscription. But I may mention that Westwood regarded this as `evidently of a somewhat more recent date than the Roman inscription' of the time of Maximin, who became Emperor in 305: the similarity in the V, which I have called attention to, might be said to countenance Westwood's `somewhat more recent date'. But I am reminded by the lettering rather of the Llanmadoc stone (Arch. Camb., 1895, pp. 180--2), though I see that HŘbner puts the latter in his first-class dating between 450 and 500 or 550, while he puts the Cantusus inscription in his second and later class'.
Language:Latin (rcaps)
Ling. Notes:Westwood/1879, 39: `The inscription, differing as it does from the ordinary formula of Welsh stones, is therefore, I presume, to be interpreted, `Here lies Cantusus, whose father was Paulinus'; or may it not mean, `Here lies Cantusus, who was the father of Paulinus?''.

Rhys/1899, 146: `Compare [this inscription with] the Spittal Stone in Pembrokeshire: Evali fili Dencui Cuniovende mater ejus, `The monument of Eval: Cuniovende his mother (put it up)''.

Macalister/1928, 289, considers this inscription as evidence for the development of the use and pronunciation of the genitive.

Macalister/1945, 384: `The syntax of the inscription in which, as in modern Welsh, the genitive relationship is expressed by position only, is worthy of special notice'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 161: `The form of the filiation by direct reference to the father is unusual (cf. No. 402). The inscription shows that after Roman times the stone was reset upside down to mark the tomb of an early Christian, Cantusus, who was apparently buried at or near the road-side in the earlier Roman tradition (cf. No. 73)'.

RCAHMW/1976, 37: `If pater is to be equated with the second name rather than the first, in contrast to the usual formula with filius, this rendering is unique'.

Palaeography:Westwood/1879, 38: `evidently of a somewhat more recent date than the Roman inscription, is the following, written in debased Roman capitals (except the h)...The crack of the stone across the latter word has damaged part of the inscription, but the stroke following the conjoined AV is extended below the line, and was evidently an L, doubtless followed by I, preceding the terminal NVS...The irregularity in the size of the letters, varying from 2 1/2 to 4 1/4 inches in height, is their most noticeable peculiarity'.

Rhys/1899, 145--146: `on the back the following inscription reading downwards:

hIC IACIT CANTVSVS PATER PAVLINVS

Two of the fractures cross this line of letters, one between the I and C of hIC, and the other along the I of Paulinus, and through the bottom stroke of the L which slants forward underneath the I; but instead of this LI, Westwood has only I or an imperfect L: the two letters should have been there. Among the peculiarities of the lettering may be mentioned that the top of the h, the first A, and the two first T's, stand above all the other letters. The h is the only minuscule of the group, and the first A bulges in the middle like the first A of Carantorius on the Kenfig stone (p. 133). The V tends to have its second limb perpendicular, but the V following A is conjoint with it'.

Macalister/1945, 384: `The lettering is unusual, with fantastic curves: in the last word the letters AVL are ligatured'.

Nash-Williams/1950, 161: `Roman capitals, fairly deeply picked in good style, with half-uncial H. The A's and T's are elongated, the latter with short top bar. The R has the open bow and short tail. There is one ligature'.

RCAHMW/1976, 37: `The letters are picked out in Roman capitals with no separation of words; the H is the single half-uncial letter, some of the A-s and T-s are enlarged, the C-s have expanded terminals and the R a short tail; there is one ligature (AV)'.

Legibility:good
Lines:1
Carving errors:0
Doubtful:no

Names

References