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A Box of Useful Knowledge:
Law, the Library and UCL

General Library in 1925, by A. Fletcher An exhibition of material from UCL Library Services Special Collections opened by Lord Woolf on 14th December 2006

UCL was the first University to attempt the systematic teaching of English Law from its foundation in 1826. From the start its Library has supported that study by collecting and preserving the legal materials required by students and staff. This exhibition celebrates the long relationship between UCL Library Services and the Laws Faculty, with a selection of items from its Special Collections which illustrate the study and teaching of law over the centuries and the links of prominent jurists to UCL from its inception.

Exhibition Themes:

A Box of Useful Knowledge
The study of Law

Before 1828 there were no regular academic courses in English Law in the English universities. Chairs of English Law had been established at Oxford in 1758 and Cambridge in 1800 but at neither University was it possible to offer Law as a subject in the Arts Degree Examination or to take an undergraduate degree in Law. In these circumstances, some professors did not lecture at all whilst others struggled to attract an audience.

The typical education of a common lawyer at the beginning of the 19th century was much as it had been for centuries: the young aspirant to the Bar would read Law in a barrister’s chambers in London, while the intending attorney or solicitor would serve his articles of apprenticeship. The formal courses of instruction offered by the Inns of Court in the medieval period had long since disappeared.

The following are examples of the type of law books and legal materials such students would have used:

Great Britain Statutes: A collection of all the statutes: from the beginning of Magna Charta, unto... 1574 / [edited by William Rastell].
[Londini]: in aedibus Richardi Tottelli, 1574.

Printed collections of statutes begin in the late fifteenth century but the first attempts to print all statutes in force date from the middle of the sixteenth. This book is a good example of an early collection. The Magna Carta, referred to as the starting point of such collections, is not the original of King John (1215) but a reproclamation of the ninth year of Henry III (1225).
This copy was bequeathed to UCL by James Yates (1789-1871), a Unitarian minister.

Great Britain Statutes: The statutes at large from Magna Charta to the twenty-fifth year of the reign of King George the Third, inclusive / by Owen Ruffhead. London: Printed by Charles Eyre and Andrew Strachan, 1786.
The phrase ‘Statutes at Large’ was first applied to an edition of the statutes of England from 1215 to 1587 by Christopher Barker to distinguish his collection from prior collections. Later other private collections were also entitled Statutes at Large, though they were somewhat abridged. The term accordingly does not denote any particular collection or edition nor imply total absence of abridgement.

A set of 25 volumes of Statutes at Large are recorded as one of the first donations to the UCL Library Law collection in 1828 by James Morrison. It is still on the open shelves and in regular use.

Ashe, Thomas, fl. 1600-1618: La table al lieur des Reports del tresreuerend judge Sir Iames Dyer: per quel facilment cy troueront toutes choses conteinus in icel ore tarde / compose per T. A.
[London] : In aedibus R. Tottelli , 1588.

Sir James Dyer (1510-1582) was a judge, law reporter and Speaker of the House of Commons. He is most famous for the collection of law reports that he compiled, which was printed posthumously in 1586. It contained over 1000 entries and was reprinted in 1592, 1601, 1621, and 1672. A table, composed by Thomas Ashe, was printed in 1588 and separately reprinted in 1600 and 1622. It was considered indispensable to all law students and even appeared in abridged versions for the more impecunious.

A Commonplace Book of 1633-34

A Commonplace Book of 1633-34 Before the proliferation of printed works of reference and law reports, young lawyers were encouraged to create their own, jotting down important points as they came across them in their reading and practical experience. This item is an example of a commonplace book which is one of a collection of such books in UCL Library Services which are said to show connections with Francis Bacon, Viscount St. Albans (1561-1626), Lord Chancellor 1618-21, and Richard Tottel (d. 1594), who was responsible for the publication of many Law books between 1533 and 1585. This particular item, however, dates from 1633. On a fly leaf, there is a note “These notes were copied out of a book lent me by Stratton. 1 mo Aprilis 1633.”

The material is arranged under such headings as Bargains and Contracts, Waste, Executors and Copyholding. Under each heading are propositions of law, frequently ending with a yearbook citation.

William Glanville: Cases on the Kings Bench

The practice of writing down private reports of cases as they were heard in court dates from the early yearbook period at the end of the Thirteenth Century. In many cases this practice reflected a personal need for a reliable and available work of reference, though from the 16th Century onwards some reporters may have had an eye on the possibilities of publication. This might be the case with this item as an autograph note on the fly-leaf, dated Sept. 16, 1746, expresses the wish that the Cases, if printed, should be “printed in a letter as near as may be to the English Edition of my Lord Coke’s Reports, Anno 1727”.

Bracton, Henry de, d. 1268: De Legibus et consuetudinibus Angliae: libri quinoque; in varios tractatus distincti, ad diversorum & vetustissimorum Codicum collationem, ingenti cura denuò Typis vulgati / Henrici de Bracton.
London: Milonis Flesher & Roberti Young, 1640.

Henry de Bracton (d.1268) was a judge of the King's Bench from about 1248 to 1257. His textbook De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae (On the Laws and Customs of England) was written some time between 1220 & 1240, brought up to date in about 1250 but first printed in 1569. Though unfinished, it is the first systematic statement of English law. Like the work of many scholars since, it was written to prevent law students being misled by ignorant judges, though Bracton is the only one who has dared say so.

Glanville, Ranulf de, 1130-1190: Tractatvs de legibus & consuetudinibus regni Angliæ: tempore regis Henrici Secundi compositus, iusticiæ gubernacula tenente illustri viro Ranvlpho de Glanvilla iuris regni & antiquarum consuetudinum eo tempore peritissimo. Et illas solum leges continet & consuetudines secundum quas placitatur in Curia regis ad Scaccarium & coram insticijs vbicunque fuerint.
[Londini]: in ædibus Thomæ Wight, 1604.

Ranulf de Glanville (1130-1190) wrote the Tractatus de Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae (The Treatise on the Laws and Customs of the Realm of England) in about 1189. It was first printed in 1554 and deals with the procedure of the royal courts. There is much information about litigation and some 80 writs are included in the text. The writer is keenly interested in legal problems and practical difficulties and not afraid to admit ignorance of some of the answers. The book must have done much to define the common law and settle the procedure of the royal courts. It became a venerated authority among English lawyers and later writers acknowledged their debt to it.

Glanville was Chief Justiciar of England and was at other times Henry II's first choice as general, judge and right hand man. If he did not compose this book, he had a hand in it.

This volume is from the law library of Sir John Richard Quain (1816-76), Judge of the Court of Queen’s Bench from 1871-76, which was presented to UCL after his death. Quain had a long association with the College, starting in 1831 when he entered as a student. He was among the first to take the LL.B. degree of the University of London in 1839 and was one of the first three Fellows of the College. After his death his trustees founded the Quain Chair of Comparative Law, which is now the Quain Chair of Jurisprudence.

Phaer, Thomas 1510?-1560: A newe boke of presidentes in maner of a register, wherin is comprehended the very trade of makying all maner evydence and instrumentes of practyse, ryght commodyous and necessary for every man to knowe.
Thomas Phaer book Londini: Impressum Lo[n]doni In aedubus Edwardi Whytchurche, 1543.

Thomas Phaer (1510?-1560), translator and physician, published two legal works. His “Book of Presidentes” [precedents] was extremely popular, going through 27 editions up to 1656. Phaer also wrote several medical works and was the first Englishman to attempt a full translation of Virgil’s “Aeneid”.

This is the oldest printed book on law in English held by the Library. It formed part of the law library of William Blackburn and was presented to UCL in 1847 by his sister, Miss Eleonora Blackburn.

Littleton, Thomas, Sir, d. 1481: Littletons tenures.
[London]: Apud Richardum Tottel, 1557.

This is one of the most famous and indispensable books of English law. Published within a year of the author’s death, thus becoming the first law book printed in England. It proved to be the most successful law book ever written in England, enjoying over 90 editions. It was an established authority by the early 16th century and was still used well into the 19th. It is the first great book on English law not in Latin and wholly uninfluenced by Roman law and it sums up the development of what was then the most important branch of the common law. The key to its success lay in the clarity of its style and the simplicity of its propositions. The underlying axioms of the land law were revealed in easy stages, with examples and reasoned explanations. It was probably the first book owned by any law student.

Fulbeck, William, 1560-1603?: A direction, or preparatiue to the study of the lawe: wherein is shewed what things ought to be observed and used of them that are addicted to the study of the law and what on the contrary part ought to be eschued and avoyded.
London: Printed by Thomas Wight, 1600.

This work, by a lawyer and historian, consists mainly of suggestions to students as to study methods, but it reveals a familiarity with the civil law and a strong preference for the clarity of codified, written law in contrast with the ambiguities of custom that characterized the common law. The book also demonstrates that Fulbecke was thoroughly conversant not only with older, medieval civil lawyers, such as Bartolus of Sassoferrato, but also with newer, sixteenth-century French writers such as Guillaume Budé and François Hotman.

William Fulbeck [1560-1603] was a bencher at Gray's Inn. Published in 1600, his Direction or Preparative was intended as a vade mecum for aspiring law students. The first book of its kind, it offers a mix of practical information and advice on personal conduct. (For example, he advises students not to study at night "for when the stomach is full and stuffed with meat, the abundance of humours is carried to the head, where it sticketh for a time and layeth as it were a lump of lead upon the brain.") For the most part Fulbeck restricts his thoughts to rhetorical techniques, methods for preparing a case, recommended readings and other topics. Though often read for amusement, this treatise remains an incomparable guide to English legal education and the legal culture of the Inns of Court during the Elizabethan era.

Book for a justice of peace: The contentes of this boke: Fyrst the booke for a iustice of the peace: The boke that teacheth to kepe a courte baron, or a lete: The boke teachynge to kepe a courte hundred: The boke called Returna breuium: The boke called Carta feodi, conteininge the fourme of dedes, releasses, indentures, obligacions, acquitaunces, letters of atturney, letter of permutacion, testementes, and other thynges: And the boke of the ordinaunce to be obserued by the oficers of the Kynges Escheker for fees takynge.
[London]: Richard Tottil, 1569.

Until the modern era the enforcement of criminal laws and regulatory statutes largely depended on justices of the peace. There was no requirement that justices of the peace be lawyers and accordingly books of advice to justices abounded. This is an example of one such handbook which sets forth the statutes, forms and processes which the justice would have to deal with.

It comes from the collection of William Blackburn presented to UCL in 1847 by his sister Miss Eleonora Blackburn.

Gratian, 12th century: Decretum cum summario Joannis de Deo Hispani.
Nuremberg: Anton Koberger , 28 February 1483. 416 f.; 35 cm.

Decretals (Epistolae decretales) is the name that is given in Canon law to those letters of the Pope which formulate decisions in ecclesiastical law. Various collections of these decretals were made, including that of Gratian, compiled in about 1150. This is the oldest printed law item held by the Library.

Justinian’s ‘Pandects’

Justinian A parchment fragment from the 14th century, consisting of one double folio leaf. The fragment displayed, judging by appearance and content, would have come from Bologna, centre of legal studies in the later Middle Ages. This fragment had been used in the binding of another book. This practice of using old parchment as binding began in the Middle Ages and continued until the seventeenth century.

The ‘Pandects’, also known as the Digest, was compiled between 530 and 533 on the orders of the Emperor Justinian (483-565) from the writings of authorized jurists. Along with his Institutes, Code and Novels, the Digest preserved much of Roman law and powerfully influenced legal thinking, study and the actual law of many European countries from the 10th Century onwards.

Justinian's Institutes

Text in Gothic hand, commentary in smaller hands, undated. Institutiones were elementary textbooks on Roman law. Justinian’s Institutes was produced in 533 as an introduction to the Digest (‘Pandects’) and is divided into four books dealing with introductory matters and the law of persons, with things and wills, with succession and obligations, and with wrongs, security and actions.

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The first law teachers at UCL

Law had been intended as a subject of study from the very beginning of the project to found a university in London and accordingly two professors were appointed in July 1827, Andrew Amos for English Law and John Austin for Jurisprudence. The following items illustrate aspects of their careers at UCL.

Andrew Amos 1791–1860, Professor of English Law 1827-34

Amos lecture notes Andrew Amos was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he became a Fellow. He read for the Bar and went into practice. In 1827 he secured the Chair of English Law in UCL. His courses of lectures were immensely popular in the first few sessions. Faced with diminishing numbers of students in his classes, he resigned the Chair in 1834.

After his resignation, Amos joined Austin on the Criminal Law Commission. Subsequently, he served on the Council of the Government of India and later as a county court judge. He was appointed Downing Professor of the Laws of England at Cambridge in 1849. He published his London Lectures in the Legal Examiner between 1831 and 1836. Among his other publications were an annotated edition of Fortescue’s De laudibus legum Angliae (1825) and The Great Oyer of Poisoning (1846), an account of the Sir Thomas Overbury affair.

Certificate of Appointment of Andrew Amos to the Chair of English Law, July 12, 1827

The certificate is signed by Horner as Warden and Henry Brougham, later Lord Chancellor, as Chairman of the Council. The wafer on the certificate (the University had no seal since it had no charter) bears the legend ‘University of London. Founded 1827’: the illustration is Wilkin’s Dome and Portico, which were not finished until 1829.

Letter from the Secretary of the Law Debating Society to Horner, March 5, 1829

The students of Amos’ first class formed a Law Debating Society under his encouragement for the discussion of points of law and jurisprudence. This letter informs the authorities of the intention of the Society to meet every Monday at 7:45pm, after Amos’ evening lecture.

Letter from Andrew Amos to Coates, April 7, 1831

Amos wrote this letter to Coates as locum tenens for Horner who had just resigned as Warden. He provides a form of notice about his course of lectures for the rest of the session for display in college only, “as I do not think that with any advertising I can do no more than clear £300”, an allusion to the fact that from the session 1831-32, Amos, like other Professors, was dependent upon the fees from students for his income. He proceeds to give a list of questions for the Easter Examinations.

A report of a meeting of former University College Law Students, June 4, 1834

Photograph of a bust of Andrew Amos presented by his former students, now kept in the Laws Faculty building, Endsleigh Garden. Amos clearly inspired his students and the regard in which he was held by them is reflected in the gift of a bust “to be displayed in the Law Library or some other suitable part of the University”. This document records the meeting convened to discuss an appropriate way of honouring him and lists the amounts subscribed by those present, which in total came to over £30.

The Chairman of the meeting and apparent instigator of the venture was Thomas Denman, the son of the recently appointed Lord Chief Justice, Lord Denman. He led the list of subscribers, pledging five guineas. Thomas Denman is also recorded as donating 122 volumes of the Journals of the Lords and Commons to Library in 1828 along with Reports of Committees of the House and 20 other volumes.

Amos Bookplate

Amos’ son, Sheldon Amos, was Professor of Jurisprudence at UCL 1869-78 and his grandson, Sir Maurice Sheldon Amos, Quain Professor of Comparative Law 1932-37.This bookplate commemorates this remarkable link of three generations of the Amos family with the Law department.

John Austin 1790-1859, Professor of Jurisprudence 1827-35

John Austin began as a soldier, seeing service under Lord William Bentinck in Sicily. In 1812, he sold his commission and commenced reading at the bar, being called by the Inner Temple in 1818. For some years he strove to make a living as an equity draftsman. In 1827, he was appointed Professor of Jurisprudence in the University. Although moderately successful at first, he failed subsequently to attract sufficient students and ceased to lecture in 1833. After his resignation, the Chair of Jurisprudence remained vacant until the appointment of J.T. Graves in 1839.

Although his first class was of modest proportions, between 30 and 40 persons, it contained some who were to be of political and other importance. Among them were John Stuart Mill, Charles Buller M.P., Edwin Chadwick, Edward Strutt (later M.P. and thereafter Lord Belper and President of the University College Council. 1871-79), John Romilly (later M.P. and M.R., the last Master of the Rolls to sit in the Commons), the future Lord Clarendon (Lord Lieutenant of Ireland 1847-52, Foreign Secretary 1853-58, 1868-70), his brother Charles Villiers (later M.P. and vigorous opponent of the Corn Laws, in Palmerston’s Cabinet 1859-66) and George Cornewall Lewis (Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1855-58).

Certificate of Appointment of John Austin to the Chair of Jurisprudence, July 12, 1827

The certificate is signed by Horner as Warden and Henry Brougham, as Chairman of the Council. Amos and Austin were appointed Professors on the same day.

Letter from John Austin to Horner, November 12, 1830

Austin planned to commence his second course of lectures for the session 1830-31 on Tuesday, 2 November. He had no audience that day, though subsequently the numbers rose to three. Rather than continue in these circumstances, he postponed his lectures until January 1831 and set himself in the meantime to edit his introductory lectures for publication. These appeared the following year as The Province of Jurisprudence Determined.

Letter from John Austin to Coates, October 5, 1833

In the session 1831-32, Austin again postponed his course until January on the grounds of ill health. He was, however, unable to meet this date and it is uncertain whether he lectured at all that session. In November 1832, he announced his intention of lecturing to the five students who had entered for his course.

AUSTIN, John: Lectures on Jurisprudence, Vol. II

Austin died on December 17, 1859, with the greater part of his lectures still in manuscript, despite the requests of friends and admirers that he publish. Within three years, his widow Sarah had prepared his notes for publication. They were immediately welcomed; at Oxford, they became a set text for the new Honours School of Jurisprudence. This memorial to her husband’s work ensured that Sarah Austin could rightly boast on his grave “… Iurisprudentiae praesertim principa ratione subtillissima enodata ore et scriptis luculenter exposuit.” ["He teased out with the subtlest reasoning problems relating to the principles of jurisprudence and expounded them lucidly verbally and in his writings."] The lectures were published in three volumes and, with the earlier Province of Jurisprudence Determined, subsequently exercised enormous influence on jurisprudence in England.

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The Law Collection in UCL Library Services

The Law collection in UCL Library was established very early, partially as a result of pressure from Andrew Amos, the first Professor of English Law. It was originally situated in a separate room, away from the main collection, and has had a number of different locations since then. It now occupies the South End of the Main Library but within the next 12 months it is planned to move it to occupy the entirety of the Donaldson reading room, allowing it to take its place at the historic heart of both the Library and UCL.

The following items attempt to track the Law collection’s growth and development and its migrations around the UCL estate.

Letter from Andrew Amos to Horner, November 12, 1827

This letter written a full year before teaching commenced in College, shows that Amos was already preparing his lectures. His main concern is, however, the formation of a Law Library: “£1,000 might be laid out upon a Law Library, to the great advantage of the students.” Amos must have been aware of the unlikelihood of the College’s spending so much money on the project for he declares his willingness to lecture “without the assistance of any books at all!” Together with the letter is a list of reports and books with prices.

By the end of 1829 the total number of volumes in the Library was 9,027. One year later it was 9,598 of which 6,055 were in the general Library, 2,100 in the Medical Library, 993 in the Law Library and 450 in the Ricardo Collection of Political Economy.

Letter from Andrew Amos to Coates, December 17, 1829

Apart from the paucity of books, Amos was also concerned about access to the Law Library. In 1828-29, the problem seems to have been that the Library was not open in the evening, so that his students, who worked during the day, were unable to consult the books or his lecture notes, which he deposited in the Library after each lecture. This problem seems to have been resolved by arranging for a separate room to be allotted for law books which would be open in the evening as Amos requested.

This Law Library was situated in a small room outside the now demolished Botany Theatre, off the south junction where Amos lectured. The site is now more or less occupied by Bentham’s Auto-Icon.

Pamphlet of the General Library 1908, plus map of the library

General Library 1908 A new General Library was built in 1849 following a fire in 1837, which had destroyed part of the original building. It was designed by Thomas Donaldson, Professor of Architecture and has been described as one of the finest library interiors in London. The Law Library was moved into part of this space when it opened in 1849 and remained there for the next 69 years until 1928.

The General Library in 1952

Framed pencil sketch, currently on the wall in the Special Collections Reading Room.

Sketch of the General Library (Donaldson) in UCL’s Centenary Year 1926-27

Shortly after this sketch was made the Law collection was moved out of the Donaldson to join the Law Faculty in new accommodation in Crabb Robinson Hall and arrangements were made for students to use the material there until 9.30pm during the week.

UCL Library Committee Minutes, 1930-40

Map of the University, locating the law Library on Gordon Street, opposite Gordon Square.

The location of the Law collection with the Faculty in Crabb Robinson Hall does not seem to have been a success; by 1934 a report of the University Visitors on the Faculty of Laws at UCL criticised the Law Library while the UCL Annual Report for that year noted that improvement was unlikely “until the problem of its accommodation in the main building of the College under proper control can be solved.”

UCL Annual Report, 1935-38

Colour block plan of the University, locating the Law Library at Foster Court.

The problem of accommodation for the Law collection was eventually solved when it was installed along with the zoology, geology, botany and geography collections in a new Library space that was created in Foster Court in 1937.

In addition the collection was boosted by a special grant of £1000 made to the Library by the Council in the 1936-37 session. This was used to complete the collection of English law reports and buy additional material for Roman Law, International Law and Jurisprudence.

Unlike the collections left in the General Library in the Wilkins Building, the Law collection was unaffected by the severe bomb damage that was inflicted on UCL during 1940, and it remained in Foster Court until 1952 when it was moved back to the reconstructed General Library.

The collection stayed in the General Library for 16 years until 1968 when the acquisition of another new building enabled the creation of the DMS Watson Library. Law was moved there along with a mixture of other subjects including Scandinavian, Anthropology and Natural Sciences, and the Brougham and Bentham papers.

Law Library, November 1985

In 1985 there was a comprehensive reorganisation of the Library’s collections with science subjects being concentrated in the DMS Watson Library and arts and humanities in the Main Library. As part of these changes the Law collection was moved to its current location. This photograph was taken shortly after the move and shows an arrangement of materials, statutes and law reports on the ground floor and journals in the gallery, which is largely unchanged; only the students’ clothes betray the era.

Law Library, 1985

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Jurists and the foundation of UCL

Lawyers and legal thinkers had a profound influence on UCL from the start. The ‘association of liberals’ (as they were described by Jeremy Bentham) who founded the university were led by Henry Brougham, a lawyer, while Bentham’s own work and philosophy shaped the thinking of the founders and the principles of the new institution.

Henry Brougham 1778-1868, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, Lord Chancellor

Brougham was a talented writer and lawyer who had been an advocate in Scotland before coming to London and being called to the English Bar in 1808. He was one of the founders of the Edinburgh Review and had moved to London to seek wider outlets in the law and politics for his versatility and energy. Elected an MP in 1810, he became particularly involved with the cause of popular education, associating himself with George Birkbeck and the mechanics’ institutes and founding in 1826 the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. He chaired the private and public meetings that led to the creation of the new university in 1826 and badgered his friends to buy shares in the scheme as well as arranging the purchase of land in Gower Street. He played a strong role in drawing up the curriculum and remained President of the College until his death in 1868. When not involved with the College, he promoted law reform in the House of Commons and was appointed Lord Chancellor in 1830. After dismissal from office in 1834 he sat frequently in the House of Lords and the Judicial Committee and gave important judgements in a number of cases.

The Political Toyman The Political Toy-man ‘cartoon’

This cartoon by Robert Cruikshank shows Brougham in his barrister’s robes hawking shares in the projected University around Lincoln’s Inn.

‘A Box of Useful Knowledge’

A caricature satirising Brougham's many sided qualities.

Baron Brougham and Vaux

Pencil drawing of Brougham.

Deeds from the Brougham Papers

A selection of four various deeds from the Brougham Papers.

Selection of legal papers

Various legal papers from Brougham’s career as a Lawyer including the draft of an Act to alter and amend 'the practice and pleading at Common Law'.

Jeremy Bentham, 1748-1832, Philosopher and Jurist

Jeremy Bentham Bentham came from a legal background (his father was an attorney) and he was trained as a lawyer, being admitted to the Bar in 1769. However, he had no success in practice and soon developed a critical attitude to the law, attacking prevailing views on politics and jurisprudence. His writings had a great influence on the founders of UCL and although he himself played no personal role in the establishment of the College, he gave his blessing and financial support to the moves to found a university in the largest city in Europe.

Bentham’s connection with UCL continued with the donation of over 200 boxes of his papers to the College in 1849 and since 1959 the Bentham Project, which is based in the Faculty of Laws, has been engaged in the massive enterprise of preparing for publication his collected works and correspondence.

Bentham also made a physical contribution to the Library, bequeathing approximately 4,000 volumes on a variety of subjects in 1832. A further portion of his library was donated by Edwin Chadwick in 1853, including works on French, American, Spanish, Portuguese and Russian law.

Photographs of the Auto-Icon
Two images of the auto-icon, one full length, one head and shoulders.

Critical elements of Jurisprudence
Brouillon of fragmentary observations numbered I to XI. A dictionary of terms proposed (probable date 1775).

Bentham, Jeremy, 1748-1832: The Works of Jeremy Bentham: Now first collected under the superintendence of his executor, John Bowring. 1848.

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Exhibition Location:

Main Library Staircase
Wilkins Building
Gower Street,
Wilkins Building

A Box of Useful Knowledge

The exhibition has been prepared by UCL Library Services’ Exhibitions Group: Elizabeth Chapman, Elizabeth Clear, Liz Lawes, Martin Reid and Steven Wright.

This text has largely been prepared by Martin Reid, UCL Library Services Law Librarian.

We are very grateful for the assistance of Susan Stead and Robert Kirby of UCL Library Services and Professor Andrew Lewis of the Faculty of Laws.

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Last modified 18 December 2006

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